Russian language is one of the most beautiful languages in the world. It is nothing if not expressive. The vast ocean of words will let you describe something as simple as a pen in thousand words, allowing to picture this image in your head to a perfection. Just like anything in life you have to start with the basic and in this case to grasp the concept and meaning behind words and sentences you have to start with grammar. When you start learning it looks unbelievable that you will ever manage to remember all these rules. That's why it will be such a reward when someday you will be reading Pushkin, Dostoyevsky and many other authors in Russian.
As we know, grammar is a set of rules and guidelines to help you to use language correctly and it would be beneficial for you to learn Russian grammar. You will see, how all of your questions will become clear. Below you will find the main parts or speech (verbs, nouns, pronouns, adjectives, adverbs) you need to know, before you move further (beginners can start with Russian alphabet).
The same as in English, in Russian adjectives describe nouns. Adjectives answer on questions - Какой? and Чей? The gender you are using depends on the gender of a particular noun (pronoun) you are describing, also you are going to use the same grammatical case in which is the noun (pronoun). Also adjectives have comparative, superlative and short form.
There are several rules, regarding to verbs. We would like to emphasize the main points. Verbs answer on questions - Что делать?(Imperfective aspect) Что сделать? (Perfective aspect). There are three tenses in Russian (future, past tense, and present); three grammatical persons; singular, plural; three genders - masculine, neuter, feminine. So, this information we use to conjugate verbs (first conjugation, second conjugation).